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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

While British schools moved up two places on average, French schools, the largest group from any one country, fell one place on average. EMLyon Business School dropped outside the MBA ranking and lost 15 places overall, while Edhec Business School failed to make it into the Executive MBA ranking and lost eight places overall as a result.

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伊格尔说:“他非常、非常善于不让这些压力以任何方式破坏苹果正在努力实现的目标。库克的脑海里无疑有要操心的问题,但他确保专门从事苹果最擅长工作的人才不必操心这些问题。”
5.X-Men: Apocalypse
Twenty years of global negotiations aimed at slowing the growth of heat-trapping emissions have yielded little progress. However, 2014 saw signs of large-scale political mobilization on the issue, as more than 300,000 people marched in New York City in September, and tens of thousands more took to the streets in other cities around the world.

这部13个小时的,关于长毛狗经历的影片花了45年才来到美国的影院,但时机却恰到好处。里维特先生淘气地在巴黎、法国文学与若干永恒的哲学谜题(真实的本质是什么,我们怎么知道我们知道,因与果之间的联系)之间徜徉,它既是一个迷人的,被重新发觉饿出来的艺术品,片长简直疯狂;与此同时,也警示着电影的未来。一切都已经做过了,一切都仍然是可能的。
The diplomatic row began when Ankara’s foreign minister was denied entry to the Netherlands on Saturday for a campaign rally in favour of Mr Erdogan’s constitutional reforms. Armed Dutch police also intercepted another Turkish minister, Fatma Betul Sayan Kaya, on her way to the rally in Rotterdam and escorted her back to the German border.
在动画电影行业执迷于翻拍让观众有共鸣的老故事时,皮克斯却总能尝试新事物,把观众带到从未踏足的新领域。《寻梦环游记》由《玩具总动员3》导演李?昂克里奇执导,该片的视觉效果基于墨西哥的亡灵节。故事讲述了一个名叫米格尔的小男孩崇拜传奇吉他手欧内斯托?德?拉?克鲁兹,想学习如何能弹奏得和他一样好。于是他就像奥德赛一样踏上了改造性的自我发现之旅,进入死亡之地寻找那位已去世多年的偶像,还受到了一些关于创造力本质的教导。《寻梦环游记》是否能达到皮克斯2015年杰作《头脑特工队》的高度尚未可知,但这部电影绝对是一场视觉盛宴。该片将于11月15日在法国上映,11月22日在美国、克罗地亚和菲律宾上映,11月30日在以色列上映。(资料来源:迪士尼/皮克斯)

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

广西授牌首批5个养生养老小镇

The remaining of the top 10 were the University of Luxembourg (second), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (fourth), University of Geneva (fifth), ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (seventh), University of St. Gallen (eighth), National University of Singapore (ninth) and Imperial College London (10th).
Consider this: Will the experience enhance your knowledge and play to your strengths? Will it introduce you to new concepts and new people? (All great reasons to say yes!) Will it require you to develop new techniques for managing your team or working with more experienced people? Embrace this challenge and get out of your comfort zone.
现在iPhone又夺回声势,对Apple Watch的期待也在升温,库克似乎重新赢得了苹果员工的信任。分析师表示,这一点从他在今年产品发布会上的表现就可以看出来。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

['greisf?l]
拍卖行称这次拍卖会还将拍卖两颗超过100克拉的钻石,吸引了30多个国家的买家。
《2013全球幸福指数报告》出台的背景是,现在的人们要求政府和政策制定者能够少关心经济的增长,而花更多的精力在提高国民的幸福感上。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 立场:拒绝在感恩节开门营业
  • 云浮市还贷提取的公积金直接划转个人账户
  • 估计当高盛公布自己2009年的奖金规模时,美国国会和媒体又会气得抓狂。但这些怨气终将只是过眼云烟,改变不了什么。所谓“高盛招人恨”的故事实在是拖得太长了。
  • 智能家居标准出台 智能卫浴有望突破瓶颈
  • 家具企业拥抱互联网+ 东莞实施“机器人智造”计划
  • And while you are at it, don't forget to celebrate the imperfections. While on a 10-day trek in the Himalayas, I learned that imperfections are beautiful too. The rough edges of the mountains, the heavy hail storms in the middle of the afternoon, were "inconvenient" but added to the beauty of the trek. I am acutely aware now that in my pursuit of perfection at work, I have often failed to recognize that imperfections are also a core part of our identity that needs to be preserved and not always changed.
    到了明年3月,这些明日之星中很有可能会有1-2个人脱颖而出,可以成为球队基石。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 社科院报告:预测2019年全球房地产市场继续保持繁荣, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京积分落户申报6月14日截止 已有超12万人申请

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

构筑“一带一路”建设重要支撑区

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The requirements come from one of two newly issued regulations over the taxi and online ride-hailing services by China's transportation authority. The regulations will take effect in October and November respectively.
    The Baltic Dry index, a measure of the trade in bulk commodities, has been touching historic lows. China, which in 2014 overtook the US as the biggest trading nation, this month reported double-digit falls in both exports and imports in January. In Brazil, which is experiencing its worst recession in more than a century, imports from China have collapsed.
  • 人力资源和社会保障部的一位官员称:“根据往年的经验,在报名窗口快关闭时,报名人数会剧增,尤其是在最后三天。”
    My fellow trainer, Sylvia Guinan, made me aware of these rules that a husband has laid out for his wife to follow during the 2014 World Cup.
    受此影响,对设备等关键领域的商业投资一直处在美国复苏历史中的低点。若就业市场缓慢改善,且家庭财富增长,则可能引发消费支出增加的良性循环,增强商业信心并增加投资。但若情况并非如此,那么今年将再度令人失望。
    Data released by the UK National Health Service last year on patient admissions revealed an alarming rise in various nutritional and communicable diseases in the past decade.
    持续推进政府职能转变。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 落户上学却没着落 共有产权房为何让人忧?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 市场回暖 北京家居业开店热潮拉开帷幕

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Mr Mallaby’s 800-page book was published in October by Bloomsbury and Penguin Press, and was hailed as “exceptional” in an FT review. It came up against strong competition from five other shortlisted books tackling the world’s critical economic and management challenges — from the US productivity gap to persistent gender imbalances.
源于:muscle(n 肌肉)
Don't Make Yourself Too Comfortable
The second half of this year should see a similar number of IPOs, making a total of about 120 cases in 2016 with about 60 billion to 80 billion yuan in financing volume, Lyn predicted.
6.London's bike hire scheme couldn't be simpler, by the way: just go up to the terminal at any docking station, pay by card and take away one of our so-called "Boris bikes". When you're done with it, simply throw it into the nearest canal. They're disposable!
95后对就业的选择更加多元化,也更加青睐工作与兴趣相结合。
According to the list, ge (哥, older brother, big brother) is without doubt the hottest net word of the year. Both of the top two cited lines use the word. In Chinese, ge here is used more like the first person pronoun (like the English, “Can a brother get a break?”)

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • ['elig?nt]
  • 百城住宅库存量重回七年前 一线城市开始补库存
  • 《蜘蛛侠:英雄归来》
    据中国岛主联盟发起者林东估计,目前中国至少有600名岛主。
  • 成都家居商圈 掀起体量之战
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • thoughtful
    Columbia Pictures克里斯蒂安?贝尔、艾米?亚当斯和布莱德利?库珀在电影《美国骗局》中早在1月份闹片荒的时候,人们不会想到今年会迎来如此多好电影。不仅如此,有几部影片甚至达到了被我们在心目中理想化了的那些老电影的水准。今年有两部电影脱颍而出。纯娱乐片方面,赢家显然是《美国骗局》(American Hustle),这部由大卫?欧?拉塞尔(David O. Russell)执导的影片讲述了上个世纪七十年代的行骗高手和他们的微妙骗术的故事,幽默诙谐,令人捧腹。而从创新角度看,《地心引力》(Gravity)的全新拍摄技术给观众带来了新的观影体验。人们普遍认为《美国骗局》无可挑剔,这部疯狂喜剧片是一部时代佳作。我个人则认为,《地心引力》是今年的最佳影片。
  • "This year's prize concerns a central economic problem: how to match different agents as well as possible," the academy said.
    不包括阿拉斯加和夏威夷在内的美国本土曾在2012年创下温度记录,那年发生过灼人的热浪和干旱。主要是由于东部地区不同寻常地寒冷,才使得2014年的温度对这48个州来说,仅在有记录以来的最暖年度中排名第34。
  • It is reported that Karl Lagerfeld, the artistic director for Chanel, died aged 85 in Paris, leaving the fashion world reeling at the loss of the man.
    扎实有效去产能。
  • Wade was probably a little easier to stop back in high school before he had filled into his 6'4'' frame that makes him so unstoppable today.
    [spu:n]
    It is the first time since 2001 that an athlete other than Mayweather Jnr or golfer Tiger Woods topped the earning league.
  • experienced
    But he told Washington's Observer-Reporter paper that he was keen to read it as it was "a testament of the sincerity, interest and innocence of that time".
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 二线城市成全国楼市“热源” 厦门合肥房价高企 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

多地重启限购政策 业内人士称部分资金撤离楼市

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

季节性淡季 首季A股上市家居企业净利微薄

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

销库存时代开启 家具卖场的消费能力去哪了?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

财政部:前2月国有土地使用权出让收入8047亿元 同比下降5.3%

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 7.别问警察怎样去伦敦西区最快,也别问他如何使用牡蛎交通卡。他也很想帮你,不过他是从西米德兰兹郡来的。
  • White anxiety has fueled this year’s political tumult in the West: Britain’s surprising vote to exit the European Union, Donald J. Trump’s unexpected capture of the Republican presidential nomination in the United States, the rise of right-wing nationalism in Norway, Hungary, Austria and Greece.
  • 市场调查:不要盲目跟风投资艺术涂料

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Shanghai is the most popular destination for new job seekers, followed by Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Beijing. Provincial capitals cities in central and western regions are also among the top choices for the new graduates.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 在排名靠前的学校中,英国华威商学院(Warwick Business School)排名提升最大,从第16位提升至第9名。整体而言,上海交通大学(Shanghai JiaoTong University)的上海高级金融学院(Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance)排名提升最大,从第28位提升至第14位。
    The Cems masters in management, the international programme provided through a network of 30 business schools, is ninth, down five places from 2015, when it was last ranked.
    release
  • China hopes that the Asia-Pacific region will be one that enjoys order and stability, a region that is able to work out issues through consensus-building consultation, properly manage differences through dialogue and has the wisdom to resolve differences.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 你可以点击此处浏览全部的假新闻,这里列出的是排名前五的假新闻:
  • 国家统计局副局长:房地产调控难度加大 需求有所减弱
  • And, ‘trustno1’ proved, perhaps unsurprisingly, to be among the worst passwords as well, taking up spot number 25.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • LED价格半年下降近50% 四大发展带来LED照明行业新趋势
  • Household substance abuse
  • 楼市局部现回暖 市场分化仍持续
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

为行业代言 全联房地产商会2017年会在京举办

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 安置房3号楼不到俩月土方过半
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 2015年全球照明行业的6大新突破
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

With interest rates expected to rise only slowly, commodities are likely to attract hedge funds and other speculative investors looking for juicier returns, said the bank.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

2014年出现了这么多大有前途的新剧:《真探》(True Detective)、《荣耀之女》(The Honorable Woman)、《冰血暴》(Fargo)、《婚外情》(The Affair)、《奥丽芙·基特里奇》(Olive Kitteridge)和《硅谷》(Silicon Valley)等。有些老剧仍在坚持,或者莫名其妙地重振雄风,或者在被砍后再次回归,最显眼的是丽莎·库卓(Lisa Kudrow)主演的HBO喜剧《归来记》(The Comeback),它在2005年播出一季后被砍,今年11月回归。
清华大学是国内表现最好的大学,有三项学科的排名进入全球前10。北京大学则是有两项学科排名挤入前十。就清华大学而言,建筑/建成环境和土木/结构工程学均排名第8,材料科学排名第10。
n. 基础,根据,建立
其中,由于IT/互联网/通讯/电子行业迅猛发展,吸纳了近三成的2016年应届毕业生。
A recent example: When Gwen Stefani launched her new album Spark the Fire, Swyft created a free sticker pack and distributed it on several of its messaging apps. It was downloaded almost a million times and sent between users seven million times, resulting in 41 million impressions in 10 days. Such campaigns cost anywhere from $50,000 to $250,000 for brands, Wray says.
这位官员表示,相比其他职位来说,那些对教育背景或工作经历没有特殊要求的职位更受欢迎,近些年报名人数达到数千人的基本上都是这种职位。
U2乐队主唱波诺、主吉他手"刀刃"和蒂娜·特纳联手合作,共同完成了这首最狂野的007电影主题曲。你会被这首歌的演唱者吸引,并且愿意为她做任何事情。在电影《黄金眼》的主题曲中,蒂娜·特纳在《黄金眼》里面所展现的性感是我们一生都无法企及的。007系列电影主题曲从未如此甜蜜性感,好似歌曲里注入了性激素。
TAXES: Approximately $18,036 a year
arrogant
中国为包括棉花、糖和玉米在内的大宗商品设置的最低价格过高,当这些价格偏离市场价格时,政府鼓励了过度生产以及强劲的进口。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

杭州有关部门权威人士明确放话: 房价松动?杭州房企别抱幻想了!

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • adj. 有毒的
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • For almost everyone else, it was a year of frustration against a backdrop of better-than-average returns for the most popular index in the land.
  • 新政下楼市降温 房产中介骚扰电话量暴增
  • “有些人说自己去吃午饭了,然后一去不回。”
  • 山东家具产业:实现由大到强需要创新驱动
  • 还是得作秀

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 李宇嘉:三四线楼市回暖是热点城市溢出效应
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 50个最优秀的“无工作经验要求”项目的所有毕业生中,三分之一以上毕业于英国的商学院。英国的商学院还吸引了近一半的女学生以及近一半的国际学生。实际上,2014年一个英国“无工作经验要求”金融硕士项目招收的学生中,有94%来自海外。这些学生当中约有85%来自欧洲经济区(European Economic Area)以外,55%来自中国内地。
  • Plenty of dark clouds loom over the U.S. job market -- particularly the potential double-punch of tax increases and spending cuts known as the fiscal cliff.[qh]

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

机构预计明年降价楼盘或将增多

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